The Triumph of Peace - 1975

program cover

A Royal Entertainment at the Huntington
Library - Art Gallery - Botanical Gardens

To Honor The Society of Fellows

In the Art Gallery
Friday Evenings, January 24

The Triumph of Peace

A Masque, presented by the Foure Honourable Houfes,
or Innes of Court.

Before the King and Queenes Majefties,
in the Banqueting at White Hall,
February the third, 1633.

Invented and Written,
By James Shirley, of Grayes Inne, Gent.

Primum hunc Arethula mihi
Printed by John Norton, for William Cooke, and are to be
fold at his Shop, neere Furnivals-Inne-gate,
in Holborne, 1633.



Introductory Remarks

R. Stanton Avery
Chairman of the Board of Trustees

Lawrence R. Tollenaere
Chairman of the Board of Overseers

James Thorpe

A Royal Entertainment
The Triumph of Peace
A Masque by James Shirley

from the Stuart Period

Wine for the Gods
Comfits and Suckets
Banbury Cake
A Made Dish of Curds

The Masque

The most distinguished form of entertainment for English royalty and nobility during the sixteeth and early seventeeth centuries was the masque. It combined music, dancing, and poetry, and it used brilliant costumes and elaborate scenery. The result was a festive delight for the senses.

Masques were private entertainments, lavishly produced, usually for the members of the royal circle at court. The audiences and the performers often mingled: the masquers were themselves sometimes courtiers, and the member of the audience joined them in the dances which punctuated or concluded the entertainment. The word “masque” is the same term that appears in “masquerade,” a gathering at which the participants were called “masquers,” or wearers of masks.

Masques usually had almost no story. They often began with a procession of brilliantly costumed masquers and their attendants. One or more anti-masques (comic, realistic sketches) might precede the masque, or come between scenes, with one person presenting them to the audience. The heart of the masque was a series of songs and accompanying dancing (with the words, music, and choreography especially prepared for the occasion) by a symbolic or mythological figure (suc as Irene, who stands for Peace, or Amphiluche, who represents the Forerunner of the Morning). After the songs, there was dancing and revelry by the masquers and the guests. The masque usually concluded with an especially spectacular scene and song. Refreshments followed.

Masques were for an exclusive audience, and they were inordinately expensive to produce. As examples of conspicuous luxury, they were no longer performed after the decline of the British monarchy in the middle of the seventeeth century.

“The Triumph of Peace” was presented before King Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria in the Banqueting Hall of Whitehall Palace in London on February 3, 1634. There was also present “a great assembly of Lords and Ladies and other persons of quality, whose aspect, sitting on the degrees prepared for that purpose, gave a great grace to this spectacle, especially being all richly attired.” The four Inns of Court - the legal societies which had exclusive right to admit people to the bar - planned and produced the masque to show their loyalty to the King. They engaged James Shirley to write the text, Inigo Jones to plan the scenes and the costumes, and William Lawes to write the music. It was said that this masque “was, for the variety of the shows, and richness of the habits, the most magnificent that hath been brought to Court in our time.” The King and Queen were especially delights: she danced with several of the masquers and declared that “she never saw any Masque more Noble, nor better performed than this was”; the King knighted the spokeman for those who had put on the masque.

The performance this evening uses the original music and the original text, somewhat shortened. The spirit of the original masque has been maintained, in the hope that we can enjoy it as royal entertainment.

James Thorpe

The Triumph of Peace

A Masque by James Shirley
Music Composed by William Lawes
Designed by Inigo Jones

First Music

Two Sarabandes
Matthew Locke

Sonata for Two Violins
Julie Ryan and Jeffrey Sandersier
Matthew Locke

Masquing Tune
John Adson

The Anti-Masques

The Entertainment begins with a series of comic sketches called anti-masques; Fancy presides over this phase of the Entertainment. The majority of the sketches are drawn from common life.

Dialogue among Opinion, Confidence, Fancy, Novelty, and Admiration

Dances of the Projectors

Dance of the Birds in the Woods

The Masque

“Heavenly strains” herald the masque proper and the entrance of three allegorical figures who symbolize the benefits of the King’s rule: Peace, Law, and Justice. Irene (Peace) enters first, drives off the anti-masquers, salutes the monachs, and calls forth her sisters, Eunomia (Law) and Diche (Justice).

The entry of Irene
Song and Chorus: “Hence, ye profane”
Song: “Wherefor do my sisters”
Chorus: “See where she shines”

The entry of Eunomia (Law)
Duet: “Think not”
Chorus: “Irene enters”

The entry of Diche (Justice)
Dance: Pavan

The three sisters’ joint tribute to the King and Queen concludes the central portion of the Entertainment. After a comic interlude, included in the original text but omitted here, Amphiluche, Forerunner of the Morning, enters and ends the revels of Night.

The entry of Ampiluche (Forerunner of the Morning)
Song: “In enny”
Song: “The lark”
Chorus: “To bed”

The Refreshments

Sugar and spice, as the old rhyme says, are very nice. To seventeenth-century cooks they were vital ingredients in most cakes, candies, and wine-based drinks. The Banbury Cake served tonight has “a good store of . . . sugar” and its share of cinnamon, cloves, mace, and nutmeg. So does the Dish of Curds, possibly an early form of cheesecake.

The Englishman’s sweet tooth was also long indulged by comfits and suckets, the curious and now largely obsolete names for many kinds of sugar-coated concoctions. Not much escaped the candying process. Tiny seeds, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and even roots and flowers were dipped or boiled in sugar and spices. Few cooks today would go to the painstaking effort required to coat, for example, anise, coriander, and cucumber seeds with a hard sugar surface; it could probably also be said that few tastes today would still be tempted by candied seeds - or even by such delicacies as sugared rose petals. Some commercial counterparts of comfits still exist.

Peanut M&Ms and Jordan Almonds are examples, and candied fruits and nuts and even sugar-coats pills still have their devotess.

Sugard and spiced wines have perhaps had a better survival rate - though hardly by the names that were used in Stuart England. Three hundred years ago there were frequent culinary - and literary - references to hippocras, bastards, caudles, wassail, possets, bishops, and syllabubs. They were all, in spite of other possible connotations, terms used to describe various forms of sugared or mulled wine. The drink being served tonight, an adaptation of “Wine for the Gods,” is a kind of hippocras. The word derives from the Hippocrates’s sleeve through which apothecaries were wont to strain their medicinal creations. The original recipe for “Wine for the Gods” from Giles Rose’s A Perfect School of Instructions for the Officers of the Mouth, 1682, (reproduced here) calls for such straining. This evening’s modern adaptation is made by more conventional twentieth-century methods.

Suzanne Hull


Warren Lucas

Cameron MacDonald

Michele Manzella

Yolanda T. Rubio

J. Steven Murillo


Linda Thomas Parrish

Country fellow
Marty Abrams

Diana Ryterband

Leslee Cotlow

Michele Manzella

Hilary Olson

Covey of Birds
Terry Sand
Robin McNelly
Yvonne Coots
Barbara French
Mary Coros
Laurene Reiner

Irene (Peace)
Paul Vorwerk

Her retinue
Patty Goff
Buff Jones
Melanie Masters
Robert Faris
John Miller
Barbara Bartholomew
Stacy Novick
Rick Wild
Doug Slaten

Eunomia (Law)
Susan Strick

Her retinue
John Kelly
Tim Mukerjee
Stuart Sobel

Diche (Justice)
Juliet Rothwell

Amphiluche (Forerunner of the Morning)
Edythe Johnson


Consort of Instruments:

David Ackerman; recorder

*Stanley Buetens; lute

Richard Cohen; viola da gamba

*Mary Kathryn Derksen; viola da gamba

Eugene Gilden; recorders

*Frederick Hammond; harpsichord

*Shirley Marcus;
violin, viola da gamba, recorders

Sue Michaels; recorders

*James Moore; violin

Frances Plesset; recorders

Julie Ryan; violin, viola da gamba

Elsie Sandefur; recorders

Jeffrey Sandersier; violin

*Member of UCLA faculty


Frederick Hammond,
Director, UCLA Collegium Musicum

Emma Louis Thomas,
Choreographer, UCLA Dance Department

John Hall,
Stage Director,
UCLA Department of Music

Allison Gail Bixby,
Costumes Supervision

We are grateful to the UCLA Departments of Dance and Music for creating this special production.

On the cover:
King Charles I, as portrayed in a miniature painting by John Hoskins, reproduced in the size of the original. From the Huntington Art Collection.

The Society of Fellows

Mr. and Mrs. Robert O. Anderson
Mrs. Anna Bing Arnold
Mr. and Mrs. R. Stanton Avery
Mr. and Mrs. Guilford C. Babcock
Mr. and Mrs. Merle H. Banta
Mr. and Mrs. Norman Barker, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Jerome D. Barnum, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Dwight C. Baum
Mr. and Mrs. John Townshend Benjamin
Mr. and Mrs. H. Norwood Berger
Dr. and Mrs. Peter S. Bing
Mr. and Mrs. Ross M. Blakely
Mr. and Mrs. Thornton Bradshaw
Mr. and Mrs. Donley L. Brady
Mr. and Mrs. George E. Brandow
Mr. and Mrs. Eli Broad
Mrs. Mary Huntintgon Burns
Mr. and Mrs. Gene Burton
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Carter
Mrs. Philip Chandler
Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Milton Clark, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Henry H. Clifford
Mr. and Mrs. William B. Coberly, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Cody
Lady Crocker
Miss Anne L. Crotty
Mrs. Homer D. Crotty
Mr. and Mrs. Earle E. Crowe
Mr. and Mrs. Austin T. Cushman
Mr. and Mrs. Justin Dart
Mrs. W. Thomas Davis
Mrs. Mark Justin Dees
Mr. and Mrs. Willard DeGroot
Mr. and Mrs. James Dickason
Dr. and Mrs. Robert R. Dockson
Mrs. Albert E. Doerr
Mr. and Mrs. Franklin H. Donnell
Mr. and Mrs. O.K. Earl, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Rollin P. Eckis
Mrs. John H. Emerson
Mr. Bryant Essick
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Finch
Mr. and Mrs. J. Robert Fluor
Mrs. J. Simon Fluor
Mr. and Mrs. Winston R. Fuller
Mr. and Mrs. James N. Gamble
Miss Gloria Gartz
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Gilbert
Mr. and Mrs. Charles M. Grace
Mrs. Richard Grant
Mr. and Mrs. Gardner K. Grout II
Mr. Robert Halsband
Mr. and Mrs. Fred L. Hartley
Mr. and Mrs. Robert P. Hastings
Mr. and Mrs. Philip M. Hawley
Dr. and Mrs. Charles L. Heiskell
Dr. and Mrs. Donald A. Hicks
Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth E. Hill
Mrs. Collis H. Holladay
Mr. and Mrs. James Hoover
Mr. and Mrs. Preston Hotchkis
Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell Howe
Miss Claudia Prentice Huntington
Mr. and Mrs. David Huntington
Mr. and Mrs. Howard E. Huntington
Mr. John B. Huntington
Mr. and Mrs.George D. Jagels
Mr. and Mrs. Barton Jones
Mr. and Mrs. Earle M. Jorgensen
Mr. and Mrs. Stuart L. Kadison
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Keatinge
Mr. James E. Kenney
Mrs. Gladys Knapp
Mr. and Mrs. Frederick G. Larkin, Jr.
Dr. and Mrs. Henry L. Lee, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. C. Birk Lefler
Mr. and Mrs. Kimball P. McCloud
Mr. and Mrs. John A. McCone
Mr. and Mrs. T.M. McDaniel, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Malcolm McDuffie
Mr. and Mrs. John McLaren
Mr. and Mrs. John M. Marble
Mrs. E. Mudd Marvin
Mrs. Murray Sands Marvin
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon
Mr. and Mrs. Edwards H. Metcalf
Mr. and Mrs. John Robert Metcalf
Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence V. Metcalf
Mr. and Mrs. Charles D. Miller
Mr. Paul Miller
Mr. and Mrs. B. Milo Mitchel
Mr. and Mrs. Coleman W. Morton
Mr. and Mrs. H. Bruce Palmer
Mrs. Ralph M. Parsons
Mr. and Mrs. Clair L. Peck, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas P. Pike
Mr. and Mrs. Charles C. Reed
Mr. and Mrs. James M. Reynolds
Mr. and Mrs. Noyes H. Roach
Mrs. Charles Robbins
Miss Harriet Sue Salmon
Dr. and Mrs. Richard Schamberg
Mr. and Mrs. George Scharffenberger
Mr. and Mrs. Taft B. Schreiber
Mrs. Frank R. Seaver
Mr. and Mrs. Richard C Seaver
Mr. and Mrs. Rocco C. Siciliano
Mr. and Mrs. Edward M. Skowrup
Mr. and Mrs. H. Russell Smith
Mrs. Keith Spalding
Dr. and Mrs. Norman Sprague
Mrs. H.G. Steele, Jr.
Mrs. Jules Stein
Mr. and Mrs. Robert P. Strub
Mr. and Mrs. Robert M. Sutton
Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence R. Tollenaere
Mr. and Mrs. William L. Tooley
Mr. and Mrs. Richard R. Von Hagen
Mr. and Mrs. George H. Whitney
Mr. and Mrs. Alexander A. Whittle
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Wilson
Mr. and Mrs. James T. Wood, Jr.
Mrs. Douglas Wright, Jr.
Dr. and Mrs. A.M. Zarem
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Zimmerman

The Board of Trustees

R. Stanton Avery, Chairman

Thomas M. McDaniel, Jr., Vice-Chairman

Stanton G. Hale, Treasurer

Louis B. Lundborg

William French Smith

Lee A. DuBridge, Emeritus

Jonathan B. Lovelace, Emeritus

John O’Melveny, Emeritus

J.E. Wallace Sterling, Emeritus

The Board of Overseers

Lawrence R. Tollenaere, Chairman
Norman Barker, Jr., Vice-Chairman
Merle H. Banta, Secretary
Daniel P. Bryant
Mrs. William B. Coberly, Jr.
Theodore E. Cummings
Austin T. Cushman
Rollin P. Eckis
Leonard K. Firestone
Robert P. Hastings
Philip M. Hawley
Mrs. Jack K. Horton
David Huntington
Mrs. Earle M. Jorgensen
Mrs. Frederick G. Larkin, Jr.
Malcolm McDuffie
Chauncey J. Medberry, III
Clair L. Peck
Taft B. Schreiber
Robert P. Strub
Donn Tatum
Mrs. William A. Wilson

The Officers

James Thorpe,

Daniel H. Woodward,

Robert R. Ward,
Curator of the Art Collection

Myron Kimnach,
Curator of the Botanical Gardens

Suzanne W. Hull,
Director of Administration & Public Services